Membership comets weatherproof denied Braga.He noted that the comet in 1577, took the same position when her watch from different angles, which proves it more distant than the Moon location.

famous astronomer Halley in 1705, was able to explain the motion of comets.He found that comets move along parabolic orbits.His achievements can be attributed to the definition of 24 orbits of comets.He determined that the comet in 1531, 1607 and 1682 years have rather similar orbit.This discovery enabled him to conclude that this is one and the same comet that in a period of 76 years is approaching Earth for a very elongated orbit.This, one of the brightest comets named in his honor.

first comet opened purely visual, but eventually began to open, and from photographs.Nowadays visually open up quite a large number of comets.Each new open comet is assigned the name of the person who discovered it with the addition, the opening and serial number among the public in a given year comets.Quite a small number of comets a
re periodic, that is a regular feature in the solar system.Most comets are so elongated orbit that is close to parabolas.Circulation period of comets can reach many millions of years.These comets are moving away from the Sun at interstellar distances, and may never come back.

orbits of periodic comets is less extended, so have quite different characteristics.Of the forty-periodic comets, which is being watched in the solar system, 35 have orbits that are inclined to the ecliptic plane by less than 45ё.The only one of all, is Halley's comet has an orbit larger than 90ё.This suggests that it is moving in the opposite direction.There is a so-called family of Jupiter.This short-period comets, ie, with periods of three to ten years.

Comet Halley Comet Halley

There is speculation that the family formed as a result of the capture of comets planets before moving along more elongated orbits.But depending on the relative position of the comet and Jupiter, the comet's orbit can both increase and decrease.The orbit of periodic comet may be subject to quite strong changes.

In one case, a comet passing near the ground many times, perhaps due to the gravity of the giant planets, so to change its orbit, which will result in the non-observed.In other cases, on the contrary, the comet had never been observed, become visible, due to changes in the orbit as a result of its passage near Jupiter or Saturn.However, changes in the orbits of so sharply, is a rare phenomenon.Although the orbits of comets are constantly changing.But it is not only the reason for the disappearance of comets.

On top of that comet rather quickly destroyed.An example of this was a comet Biela.We opened it in 1772.After that, it was observed three times, and in 1845, it was increased, and the following year, observing it, were astonished to see, instead of one, two are very close to each other comets.In the calculation revealed that the comet split up a year ago, but due to the fact that since its components are designed on one another, it is not immediately noticed.The next time this comet observation, one part was significantly smaller than the other, and a year later it no one else was watching.Although judging by the meteor shower that passes strictly on the former orbit of the comet, we can confidently say that it collapsed.

comet's tail is also quite interesting object.He always directed from the sun.If the comet is at a distance from the sun, a hundred and tail absent.But the closer it approaches the Sun, the more and become the tail.Corpuscular beam and light pressure push the tail of the comet from the sun.If the tail visible condensation or cloud, it seems possible to measure the speed of movement of the material from which it is composed.There are times when the rate of material in the tail of the comet are huge and exceed the gravity of the sun hundreds of times.Although this value is usually not exceed a few times.

For convenience, decided to subdivide comet tails into three types:

  • I kind of - it's tails with a repulsive force from ten to one hundred times the gravity of the sun.These tails are located almost exactly from the Sun;
  • II type - a little more than a repulsive force of gravity.This tail is slightly curved;
  • III type - has a strongly curved tail, which suggests that the gravitational force of the sun longer repulsive.

The tail of a comet comet's tail

exact mass of comets is not possible to install due to the fact that it is too small, it would be such as to influence the movement of the planets.Presumably the upper limit of the mass of the comet is 10 (-4) from the Earth.In fact, this value can be much smaller.

can be concluded that the density of the material of which the comet also quite low.The nucleus of the comet is surrounded by a very rarefied gas environment.The very solid and it is about one to thirty kilometers.It consists of volatile substances, but being in the solid state.When approaching the Sun, sublimation of ice, resulting in a visible and our tail.
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